Ubitx Firmware

hex files in the release. Ian Lee) has chosen to spend his time writing an aftermarket firmware for the uBitx. After that I replaced the LCD display routines with ones written for TFT display. Many thanks to Pete Eaton (WB9FLW) who shares the following post: Last March Ashhar Farhan VU2ESE the designer of the very popular BITX20 and BITX40 series of mono-band HF Transceivers announced a new low cost Rig called the uBITX (micro BITX) a full blown 80-10m 10 Watt SSB/CW Transceiver. Create a Project Open Source Software Business Software Commercial Games Top Downloaded Projects Blog @sourceforge Resources Articles Site Documentation Support Request. You will not need to mod the ubitx for anything, but I suggest turning the drive inside the ubitx down so that you peak 5w or you can really over do it and cause some nasty rf. Nextion LCD, TJC LCD, 20x04 LCD and I2C LCD are not essential for using uBITX Firmware CEC version. 0 The uBITX Firmware KD8CEC version started with bug fix became 1. If you have a switch connected to that point (for turning off the AGC) no problem, just attach the analog input to that same switch terminal. Idea to use Si5351 is another mistake who will be revealed after months from all hams. Contribute to afarhan/ubitx_v5 development by creating an account on GitHub. Contribute to neilmb/ubitx-ng development by creating an account on GitHub. April 19, 2018 Uncategorized 1/2" brass stand offs, 10K log pot, 2-pin connector for antenna, 3-pin connector for power supply, 8-pin connector for audio, 8-pin connector for Radino, box contents, components, DC connector, DC jack, diode, EC-11 encoder, electret mic, EP connectors, female BNC for antenna, plastic box, PTT pushbutton, Raduino. 12) for the uBITX V5 board. 0a 2 months ago KE6MT. My idea is to first make a mini hf manpack out of it and try to include a small coil based ATU with it to work on long wire. 8” Nextion LCD modules available from online sellers like Amazon, eBay and other import sites. Rod KM6SN has put together a comprehensive manual for Ian KD8CEC's firmware. kb1oiq_users_guide. pdf: * Describes a hardware and software modification to add a keypad to the uBITX. Add to cart. Loving my uBitx and the KD8CEC latest firmware, using 2 arduino's. 061 current) runs on a standard factory µBITx. It features with full isolation, single usb for CAT and Audio control, and Rx and Tx audio level controllable. kb1oiq_ubitx_keypad. I want to order but when I click BUY, it simply gives me a choice to select DHL which I did. Wiring up the uBITX was easy. hex firmware and so on. In particular, click on the BITX20/album link to see the spectrum analyzer plots of the transmitter output. Assemble; Choose Power Supply; Choose enclosure; Choose Microphone; Wire up the Mic jack; Wire up the headphone jack; Wire up the Volume Control; Wire up a paddle and straight key; Load up a sketch on your Raduino; Get support when you need it; Fix. Although the μBITX has a very wide dynamic range, there is no AGC. uBITX housing Looking at ordering a uBITX but I'm wondering if anyone makes any sort of pre-made case I can purchase for it. It comes preloaded with µBITX’s free and open source software, so you can add all the features you want to!. uBITX CEC Firmware supports various LCD since Version 1. amateurradio) submitted 1 year ago by lowell1960 NE4EB [E] Want to upgrade the firmware in my uBitx to the 1. Posted on December 16, 2018 Updated on December 21, 2018. 4 inches and 2. It features digital tuning, dual VFOs, RIT, CW Keyer and more. 2019) Added uBitx v5 boards firmware download link Added EEPROM Cleaner sketch (Strongly recommended when upgrading the firmware) If you come here to make some improvements on your uBitx rig we assume you already know about the uBitx. 08 Release Version 1. Its dimensions are 6″ x 5 1/2″. This version is not significantly different from version 1. Nextion LCD, TJC LCD, 20x04 LCD and I2C LCD are not essential for using uBITX Firmware CEC version. In particular, click on the BITX20/album link to see the spectrum analyzer plots of the transmitter output. the discussion group is here. I posted the zipfile with all the files needed to compile the program and upload it to the uBITX using the Arduino IDE version 1. Use other posts or manuals. Now lets construct the Digital Adapter kit which has the following accessories. Before I had my own board of uBITX, I searched in my shack for some suitable box. The uBitx is a two layer board, the bottom side is mostly ground plane. In order to view signals from Character LCD or Nextion LCD, Signal Meter. ) - Fixed all known bugs for uBITX. Many thanks to Pete Eaton (WB9FLW) who shares the following post: Last March Ashhar Farhan VU2ESE the designer of the very popular BITX20 and BITX40 series of mono-band HF Transceivers announced a new low cost Rig called the uBITX (micro BITX) a full blown 80-10m 10 Watt SSB/CW Transceiver. The Raduino is a small board with an Si5351 clock generator, an Arduino Nano and a 16×2 LCD display. Ian Lee) has chosen to spend his time writing an aftermarket firmware for the uBitx. While all this was happening I would transport the uBitx in its little lunch box to work and back and play ham radio on it. Also, will be designing a circuit to tap off the IF and provide a band scope/waterfall on the 5″ display. USB Socket 1 D9 Socket 1 Stereo Sockets 2 Printed Circuit Board The USB socket can be used for connecting your PC and updating code for the software of your ubitx or bitx, also for Digital modes operation. The old version has a TDA2822. Idea to use Si5351 is another mistake who will be revealed after months from all hams. Eligible for Free Shipping. I slip an inch length of heat shrink tubing over that end of the two cables. Luckily the uBITX routines map everything related to the display to a couple of simple functions. If you are not using CEC Firmware version 1. Updated uBitx raduino software Inspired by the latest edition of the Soldersmoke podcast , I took a look at the updated software that has been created for the embedded Arduino Nano. Here are some links to uBITx resources , where you can find more. The uBitx although not without faults and gremlins is "new" , is DC to 30MHz , is up to 10 watts (more like 6-8) and $139. There are two ways to upgrade the firmware of uBITX. There are many display options available for the uBITX. KD8CEC (Dr. Nick, just sent you an email from my good email address that goes straight to my phone. There are significant improvements to the user interface and to functionality. Its dimensions are 6″ x 5 1/2″. The back order link will be placed soon. Just like most every other receiver ever made. The one mod i was able to find for a bitx40 involved bypassing the band pass filter, i dont get the best recieve to begin with on it id imagine trying without any sort of rx filter would be much harder. You will not need to mod the ubitx for anything, but I suggest turning the drive inside the ubitx down so that you peak 5w or you can really over do it and cause some nasty rf. I did the wiring AFTER placing the boards and controls in the box -- this helped me keep all the wires at their optimum length (not too long, and more important -- not too short!). A Digital adapter board that has the following sockets. Which version of firmware works with the old or new board? You can use either firmware on either of the boards. I grabbed a 2. Blog @sourceforge Resources. uBITX from VU2ESE « on: December 10, 2017, 10:43:25 AM » I'm not sure what the biggest bang for the $$$ was in this hobby, but as of today, it must be this new $119 transceiver:. the V4 boards. Kindly email us what colors you prefer , the usual colors will be Blue, Maroon, Black, Siemens Grey. - CAT communication function. #ubitx #qrp #hamradio… https://t. 04 Release, but There is no major change compared to version 1. We're the ideal introduction to Autodesk, the leader in 3D design, engineering and entertainment software. But, before software, we have to make a workable hardware platform. It worked fine except the displayed and receive frequency was off by 1100Hz as it was back on post #5 with the blue LCD. I'll show you how to upload a compiled hex file as a second method. There are five. The method requires that you use the custom CEC. ) - Fixed all known bugs for uBITX. This document does not describe the use of uBITX and uBITX Manager. The uBITX has much cleaner audio and sounds more like a commercially available radio than the BITX40. Below are the pictures of the new panels which make a new ubitx case in various colors for nextion displays 2. The uBITX is a US$129 HF SSB/CW QRP transceiver kit that works from 3 MHz to 30 MHz with up to 10W TX power. 08 is the first major release since 1. 070 or later, you need to. 02 version KD8CEC has released. It shows its. Some use the stock firmware while other require extensive firmware modification or alternate firmware. Connect the uBITX's USB cable to the computer. msc and press OK Button. Last March, Ashhar Farhan (VU2ESE) the designer of the very popular BITX20 and BITX40 series of mono-band HF Transceivers announced a new low cost rig called the uBITX (micro BITX) a full blown 80-10m 10 Watt SSB/CW Transceiver. Before I had my own board of uBITX, I searched in my shack for some suitable box. Updated uBitx raduino software Inspired by the latest edition of the Soldersmoke podcast , I took a look at the updated software that has been created for the embedded Arduino Nano. Description POPULAR DESIGN LM324 AGC AGC KIT WITH VU METER This Agc circuit is being used in our Bitx kits. Idea to use Si5351 is another mistake who will be revealed after months from all hams. On most operating systems,. Im assuming that the ubitx has filters for each band, but i cant make sense of the schematic to tell for myself. The BITX-40 is a 40 meter radio. the discussion group is here. The TSW T4 software manuals cover only our changes to the factory software's operating procedure so you will also have to become familiar with any instructions from the factory pertaining to the uBITX operation with their V4. The CCARC has chosen the uBITX as our first group kit. You can select the. The uBITX is a SSB/CW transceiver for 160m – 10m at a 10W level. As has been my recent practice, I have opted to put my uBITX in the same kind of wooden box that I used for my three scratch-built BITX projects. However, uBITX v2, v3, v4 users do not need to upgrade because there is no significant change in functionality. Some old computers have a db9 which can be used here for CW operating from a pc software , or any other use,it could also be used for Ian Lees code for adding switches with a 20X4 LCD. On the other hand, many of the homebrewers do need a general coverage transceiver on the bench as well as as a base transceiver for bands beyond the HF. I had contacted you a month or so ago about these boards and at the time you were out. The All-band HF Amateur Radio Transceiver: Just waiting to be modified. 04 Release, but There is no major change compared to version 1. For instance, the community firmware on mcHF or uBITX have been game changers and without that neither would be what it is today. It makes the electrical interface and mechanical transition between the Raduino board and the TFT color touch-screen. Since I write my own software I calibrated the new S meter display with the lab equipment. When HF Signals marketed the uBITX early December 2017, customers leapt in and ripped them off the shelf. The uBITX use an Arduino to simplify the front panel while retaining all the functionality in a simple menu system that works with the tuning knob and a single ‘function’ button. Moreover, the spurious radiation issue of the older versions seems to have been solved also, at least to a large extent. My uBitx is looking much nicer since I made a new lid for it and mounted the speaker with a grill made of offcuts from the gutter guard we had installed last year. hmi, i have a question, when i load it on the gui software the items are all grouped in the top left corner. Add to cart. In future, more software can be added to implement keyer, SWR display, etc. With this add-on board, the uBitx is able to work on ham radio digital modes, FT8, JT65, PSK or RTTY etc. Updated sketch for the raduino on uBITX. It worked fine except the displayed and receive frequency was off by 1100Hz as it was back on post #5 with the blue LCD. 08 is the first major release since 1. This software is for the original uBITX Raduino with a standard (NOT the I2C) display. Home made ubitx box Inspired by the excellent ubitx. The uBitx V5 is now in production. For instance, the community firmware on mcHF or uBITX have been game changers and without that neither would be what it is today. The uBITX on 60 Meters Last night, I snagged W1MGY, the Titanic Marconi Memorial Radio Association of Cape Cod's 106th anniversary of the sinking of the Titanic. The Digital Adapter kit has been added to the case so that some functions can be used with the ubitx. The rig supports two VFOs, RIT, calibration, CW semi break-in, meter indicator, etc. Updates (20. The uBITX is a US$129 HF SSB/CW QRP transceiver kit that works from 3 MHz to 30 MHz with up to 10W TX power. This sure makes the uBITX look the part in the shack. kb1oiq_ubitx_keypad. My idea is to first make a mini hf manpack out of it and try to include a small coil based ATU with it to work on long wire. 08 Release Version 1. The ubitx is a great low cost choice for sure. Loving my uBitx and the KD8CEC latest firmware, using 2 arduino's. It's my intention to answer as many of them as possible. Lots of interesting and useful stuff on his site (altho I think it could be better organized). I have been working on a TFT display for the uBITX and have something that works well for me. If it isn't then you'll never be zero beat. I tried the red notice about buying in Rupia but that is apparently for Indian buyers. I made a transition board out of perf-board. In, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. Many thanks to SWLing Post contributor, Pete Eaton (WB9FLW), who writes:. The unit is a low cost HF rig and I would like to keep the case low cost as well. 5″ touch screen to the front of my rig. I want to order but when I click BUY, it simply gives me a choice to select DHL which I did. I did the wiring AFTER placing the boards and controls in the box -- this helped me keep all the wires at their optimum length (not too long, and more important -- not too short!). Extra signal processing arduino, touchscreen, 24V step up supply for the PA (40W out ssb 80m, 10W out ssb 10m), internal Raspberry Pi (waiting for Pi3 to arrive), space for internal LiPo battery approx 2500mAh at 14. FM? I don't see the point but clipping and limiting ahead of tuning (varactor) is easy. The method requires that you use the custom CEC. 4 inches and 2. I am designing a 5″ display, Cortex-A8 (minimum) CPU with the Si5351A Synthesizer chip, and will be writing the FW for it. " Generic firmware for the Raduino comes preinstalled, and more enhanced versions can be found on user websites. Many user of Ian's firmware are not aware of all the built-in features of his firmware. BASIC uBITX CONSTRUCTION IMPROVEMENTS NOT ALL OF THESE NINE BUILDING STEPS APPLY TO ALL VERSIONS OF THE MICROBITX --- DO THE ONES THAT APPLY TO YOUR MODEL. First thing I had to do was disable the LCD driver software and include the Adafruit libraries for the ST7735 and the graphics routines. This document does not describe the use of uBITX and uBITX Manager. User Manual for KD8CEC uBITX software rev 1. hex files in the release. So here is the why that you should have an in-line fuse on your power cord:. The uBitx digi-interface module is an add-on module board for uBitx transceiver. The audio board takes up to a 30V supply and delivers 30W, but that was excessive and I didn't want to accidentally blow up small speakers. Here is how the µBITX has to be wired. i saw quite a few mods on both ubitx. This could be very useful as it could be used to upgrade the software […]. Connect the uBITX's USB cable to the computer. , the beach). Posts about uBITX written by va4sr. Another toy at home: UBITX transceiver. Prior to deployment, the 16x02 LCD with built-in is tested first. Eligible for Free Shipping. It comes preloaded with µBITX's free and open source software, so you can add all the features you want to!. The uBITX is an all band HF Transceiver kit made in India. Im assuming that the ubitx has filters for each band, but i cant make sense of the schematic to tell for myself. Wiring up the uBITX was easy. 27 is planned to be changed to Version 1. uBitx first receiver test Posted by MtMotorStables at 9:06 PM. uBITX TFT display update 1/10/2018 I had a little time over Christmas weekend while everyone else was watching football to work on the TFT display for the uBITX. Just remember. Although the μBITX has a very wide dynamic range, there is no AGC. μBITx is an open-source semi-kit, part of the BITx family. Below are the pictures of the new panels which make a new ubitx case in various colors for nextion displays 2. Fortunately the fact that the uBitx is managed by an Arduino simplifies things greatly. I posted the zipfile with all the files needed to compile the program and upload it to the uBITX using the Arduino IDE version 1. Updates (20. 02 version KD8CEC has released. The KD8CEC firmware provides a lot of customisation features through uBITx Manager software. There are five. - CAT communication function. W0EB/W2CTX Firmware for the Micro BITX 80-10 meter Transceiver for NON I2C Release V2. 2019) Added uBitx v5 boards firmware download link Added EEPROM Cleaner sketch (Strongly recommended when upgrading the firmware) If you come here to make some improvements on your uBitx rig we assume you already know about the uBitx. Eligible for Free Shipping. I prefer to work on CW mode and this SSB wide receiver is not so good for me. 073Beta version as below. This includes features and bug fixes addressed in Beta versions 1. LCD GUI Firmware) uBITX firmware CEC Version is based on uBITX which has not modified anything. This page will record modifications and results from the group. The CW key jack needs to be rewired with this version. net web site, I have bent a larger box so that the front panel ergonomics are improved. On your computer, press the Windows key + R. This is one such instance! JJ1EPE raised a concern that his display in CW mode was "off frequency". The uBITX is a US$129 HF SSB/CW QRP transceiver kit that works from 3 MHz to 30 MHz with up to 10W TX power. 097 supports the both a 2. This is my version of an enclosure for the popular uBITX HF transceiver in its unmodified form. It shows its. The first is to compile the source from the Arduino IDE, and the second is to upload the compiled hex file using the Firmware Upgrade Tool. 0 only with no further function. This page will record modifications and results from the group. Run Device Manager on your computer. Also, will be designing a circuit to tap off the IF and provide a band scope/waterfall on the 5″ display. 097 supports the both a 2. net I think there is a problem with the transmit frequency being lower than dial. uBitx simple spur fix? eHam. Stephen VK2BLQ put that one together. 08 (16x02 Parallel, 20x04 Parallel, 16x02 I2C, 20x04 I2C, 16x02 Dual LCD with I2C) Supports Nextion LCD (Graphic LCD) from Version 1. Sign in - Google Accounts - Discover - Google+. Love QRP and I am so happy with the uBitx that I have sold all my commercial HF rigs as I tend to use the uBitx all the time and it has revitalised the excitement of ham radio for me after all if I need reliable communication I can use my mobile phone !!!!. I'll show you how to upload a compiled hex file as a second method. With this add-on board, the uBitx is able to work on ham radio digital modes, FT8, JT65, PSK or RTTY etc. The attached ZIP file is the original uBITX software from afarhan/ubitx. User Manual for KD8CEC uBITX software rev 1. In-Line Fuse assembly. My idea is to first make a mini hf manpack out of it and try to include a small coil based ATU with it to work on long wire. Your transmitted frequency has to be offset from the CW-tone if it is to be zero beat with the received signal. 25 version and bug fixes. After that I replaced the LCD display routines with ones written for TFT display. 061 I will release it after a 50-day beta test Version 1. The attached ZIP file is the original uBITX software from afarhan/ubitx. The uBITX has much cleaner audio and sounds more like a commercially available radio than the BITX40. Many thanks to my buddy, Robert Gulley (AK3Q), who shares the following announcement from his blog All Things Radio: I have posted two new articles in the Reviews and How-Tos section. On the other hand, many of the homebrewers do need a general coverage transceiver on the bench as well as as a base transceiver for bands beyond the HF. In order to view signals from Character LCD or Nextion LCD, Signal Meter. The one mod i was able to find for a bitx40 involved bypassing the band pass filter, i dont get the best recieve to begin with on it id imagine trying without any sort of rx filter would be much harder. So far just mocking up as the XYL and animals are still asleep. I had to use a separate volume control and power switch because the. except GUI is same as existing CEC Firmware. Many user of Ian’s firmware are not aware of all the built-in features of his firmware. 0 only with no further function. This allows firmware updates and CAT control from outside of the rig. 061 Software Installation CECSW is available in two forms: 1. I prefer to work on CW mode and this SSB wide receiver is not so good for me. Version 4 had audio problems and these have been solved in the latest version by means of a good old LM386 audio IC. If you do it this way, put a cloth over the boards so you don't drop solder blobs on the uBITX. In other words, the V5 looks to be cleaned up vs. GUI Firmware V3, uBITX Manager V1. I thought you would be interested in the QRP station accessory I added to my version 3 microbitx transceiver. hmi, i have a question, when i load it on the gui software the items are all grouped in the top left corner. The CW key jack needs to be rewired with this version. This also powers the class D audio amplifier TDA8932 board for a power capability of around 7-10W. The old version has a TDA2822. For instance, the community firmware on mcHF or uBITX have been game changers and without that neither would be what it is today. All existing firmware functions for V3 and V4 are available on the V5 beta. Some use the stock firmware while other require extensive firmware modification or alternate firmware. Hello all, about the file ubitx_70_E. download CAT support uBITX firmware 0. hex file for your LCD. Placa de baza este rev. You do not need to modify the hardware to apply this firmware. One thing that I neglected to mention was the amount of internet support there is for the uBITX transceiver kit. The green horizontal line is the FCC limit, and as you can see, all spurious and harmonic output is now well below the FCC limits. I have made softrock ensemble rx/tx software defined radio; amazing but I found i could not lug a laptop around for portable use; hence ubitx fits the bill perfectly. A number have gotten them on the air. You can adjust it yourself. Support Ham band on uBITX default Hamband is regeion1 but customize by uBITX Manager Software Advanced ham band options (Tx control) for use in all countries. The first is to compile the source from the Arduino IDE, and the second is to upload the compiled hex file using the Firmware Upgrade Tool. After three days of operation on 40 Meters it was clear the uBitx needed some shoes. 73 Juddie WD8WV. You do not need to modify the hardware to apply this firmware. If you can follow the above, go ahead, wire it up and move on to the tune up instructions. Your transmitted frequency has to be offset from the CW-tone if it is to be zero beat with the received signal. 2 are required before uploading it in order for it to run properly on a stock Ver. Please check the link below for fur. Who could imagine the small Test facility in India that VU2ESE had setup trying to cope with the unexpected demand, or the women having to wind and test the toroids, churning them out at speed. I grabbed a 2. Well, mostly unmodified. I prefer to work on CW mode and this SSB wide receiver is not so good for me. The Software Defined Radio (SDR) route as followed by several designs offer some simplification at the cost of bringing digital signal processing and a PC into the signal path. In addition to CEC Firmware, any firmware can connect SDR in the following way. Passed City & Guilds Radio Amateurs exam first time without attending any courses just taught myself via my long interest in electronics and a few books. I am looking at a stand alone meter using a pro-mini and a I2C OLED display. Updates (20. 02 version KD8CEC has released. This is one such instance! JJ1EPE raised a concern that his display in CW mode was "off frequency". net is a Web site dedicated to ham radio (amateur radio). The method requires that you use the custom CEC. For instance, the community firmware on mcHF or uBITX have been game changers and without that neither would be what it is today. Which version of firmware works with the old or new board? You can use either firmware on either of the boards. Idea to use Si5351 is another mistake who will be revealed after months from all hams. Now that, my friends, is a BEAUTIFUL uBITX. Spectral purity; Reverse polarity; Audio Pop. Installing SWR and RF Power Sensor in uBITX by KD8CEC AMATEUR RADIO April 13, 2019 Installing SWR and RF Power Sensor in uBITX I modified the I2C Type Signal Meter firmware to display SWR when using. uBITX progress With the granddaughters here a few days for Christmas, I sat through Nanny McPhee last night (and actually enjoyed it) - but then it was time to get my daily radio fix. uBitx simple spur fix? eHam. hex file for your LCD. After three days of operation on 40 Meters it was clear the uBitx needed some shoes. I'll show you how to upload a compiled hex file as a second method. It's a fully analogue radio, but it can be combined with an RTL-SDR to create a panadapter display thanks to a tutorial released by KD8CEC. Nextion LCD, TJC LCD, 20x04 LCD and I2C LCD are not essential for using uBITX Firmware CEC version. ubitx Brought to you by: Create a Project Open Source Software Business Software Commercial Games Top Downloaded Projects. A Digital adapter board that has the following sockets. download CAT support uBITX firmware 0. AM? This bunch has been direct injecting for decades. Updated uBitx raduino software Inspired by the latest edition of the Soldersmoke podcast , I took a look at the updated software that has been created for the embedded Arduino Nano. I released it for people looking for HEX files. I bought a $10 ST Micro Nucleo-32 board and got the uBITX code running on it. I got a chance to do some work on the uBITX build over the weekend. 0) uBITX firmware CEC Version is based on uBITX which has not modified anything. uBITX Transceiver. My idea is to first make a mini hf manpack out of it and try to include a small coil based ATU with it to work on long wire. Prior to deployment, the 16x02 LCD with built-in is tested first. In this way transceiver sounding very bad, digitally, noisy and I don't like it. msc and press OK Button. It is supplied as a completely pre-populated and tested circuit board by the manufacturer (trading as HF Signals). Thanks to Steve, N3SB, and Rich, N3III for bringing this together. 5 or later to the [email protected] On your computer, press the Windows key + R. Prior to deployment, the 16x02 LCD with built-in is tested first. Well, mostly unmodified. ino as a file extension, which need to be compiled and uploaded onto the uBITX. The uBITX is a SSB/CW transceiver for 160m - 10m at a 10W level. 061 current) runs on a standard factory µBITx. When HF Signals marketed the uBITX early December 2017, customers leapt in and ripped them off the shelf. 097 and Nextion, TJC LCD GUI V3 Download. The uBITX may be closer to true homebrew than many hams are accustomed to. In most Windows, you can easily launch the Device Manager by running. I grabbed a 2. Amateur Radio Kits by VU3SUA Sunil Lakhani from India. I use a 2-conductor section of female. Use other posts or manuals.